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              作家黃孝陽:“量子力學”如何影響了我們今天的文學

              2018-2-7 10:24| 編輯: admin| 查看: 21977| 評論: 0

              在2月3日的思南讀書會上,黃孝陽和青年批評家方巖、何同彬以及青年作家易小荷共話“小說與澎湃而來的新時代”。

              2017年底,70后作家黃孝陽推出了他的長篇新作《眾生:迷宮》。在許多批評家那里,黃孝陽的作品被劃入“先鋒文學”, 比如,這部新作的腰封上羅列著下述先鋒文學里常見的元素:寓言、隱喻、科幻、歷史、空間、時間、現實、夢境。然而,黃孝陽自稱自己是一個現實主義作家,只是他所理解的現實和一般人理解的現實不同而已。

              今天的小說家如何處理現實?這是文學批評界經常討論的題目。在2月3日的思南讀書會上,黃孝陽和青年批評家方巖、何同彬以及青年作家易小荷共話“小說與澎湃而來的新時代”。

              讀書會一開始,黃孝陽就開門見山地通過對劉震云新作《吃瓜時代的兒女們》的批評,表達了今天多數作家在書寫現實上存在的問題。在黃孝陽看來,“他這個小說,只是對當下的一個描摹,但是談不上真正的理解當下。理解應該有一些技術含量的,比如說我們考驗要從一個維度上廣度和深度上來理解這個當下。除了面貌五官外,他的骨骼、他的血肉、他的DNA片段,但是很抱歉,我自己有這種感受,我們很多人在談論當下的時候,筆觸只停留在這個層面。”

              黃孝陽的坦率讓人聯想到他的另一重身份,除了出版人、小說家之外,他自己也是文學批評家。對于黃孝陽來說,他特別關心的問題是如何理解當下:什么是當下?當下有什么形象?它有什么內核?而黃孝陽不滿的是,今天許多作家提供的文本是落后于我們的現實的。相比于黃孝陽提到的劉震云的新作,一個更著名的例子是余華的《第七天》,新聞化的《第七天》被認為把小說變成了對于時事的轉化。

              那么,黃孝陽自己如何理解現實,又如何在小說里處理這個現實?這要從他那個著名的觀點即“量子文學觀”說起。何為量子文學觀?簡單來說,經典物理的體系是由牛頓力學建立的,而目前的文學理論和小說也都是由這個經典物理體系規定的,或者說,目前的小說是一個經典物理的體系:什么時候什么地點,某個人,男人和女人在這一場有了愛情故事。

              更具體地來說,按照黃孝陽的講法,經典物理分娩了我們文學,這個東西一直在過去的幾十年都是有效的。但是今天現實的面貌在很大程度上是與量子力學和相對論的出現有關的。而對小說來說,小說要寫人,人需要一個舞臺,這個舞臺就是時間和空間。經典物理和量子力學對于時間和空間的理解完全是兩回事。

              同時, 黃孝陽也講到,今天我們的現實有兩個構成的力量,一個是市場對資源的高效配置或者資本的全球流動,第二個是科技增長的福利。“科技建構了我們今天的現實,這句話是什么意思?科技建構了我們的現實,而不是像原先有來自某些圣人大哲他們的教導來建構我們的現實。今天是科技來建構我們的現實。”在科技建構現實的情況下,黃孝陽希望以量子文學觀讓科學和人學打通,讓科學的人與文學的人能有一個有機的融合。

              最后,黃孝陽也希望通過量子文學觀為現代人重新獲得主體性建立一個大的價值坐標系。在黃孝陽看來,在今天社會里,時間和空間的碎片化,人際交往的碎片化,使得人被打碎,變得原子化。

              “為什么張朝陽會得抑郁癥?這些人按照我們世俗上講的,該有的東西都有了,為什么他們如此之痛苦,因為這些碎片像刀片一樣,會刺痛我們的心臟。”如何讓人重新獲得作為一個人的整體性,除了皈依宗教或某種理念之外,另一個渠道就是閱讀文學。“量子文學觀為現實主義、現代主義及后現代主義,建構了比較大的價值坐標體系,它能夠把我們原先文學世界里互為悖論相互沖突的理論統一在一個坐標圖里,量子文學觀為人重新獲得他的主體以及整體性提供了一個理論上的可能性。”

              那么,黃孝陽對于現實的這種理解如何影響或體現在他的小說創作里?方巖談到,這本《眾生:迷宮》一直在用上帝視角進行敘述,這也是黃孝陽刻意強調的。十九世紀的長篇經典如巴爾扎克也是用上帝視角,那黃孝陽的上帝視角與之有何區別?方巖解釋說,在巴爾扎克看來,這個世界是可以通過作家的描述變得脈絡清晰,而且巴爾扎克的上帝之眼的知識背景也跟當時那個一環扣一環的機械時代有關。但是眼下這個智能社會或信息社會完全和巴爾扎克的時代不一樣。

              “黃孝陽在《迷宮》里采取上帝視角,你會發現一開始是從一個女人的子宮里開始敘述,這個敘述的主角沒有被生下來的時候他已經對這個世界的運行機制有一個全盤的掌握。你會發現一開始這個上帝就是掌握了各種知識和理論,對信息時代智能時代的各種相關的因素了如指掌。”在方巖看來,黃孝陽就是想通過這種方式來解釋我們今天所身處的社會,所以在黃孝陽的眼里或者在黃孝陽塑造的上帝之眼的層面上,這個世界上所發生的一切都可以依靠知識和技術來解釋。 

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