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              誰決定了故事的生死?——《文學病人》創作談

              2018-2-7 10:33| 編輯: admin| 查看: 22980| 評論: 0

              我對于科幻類文藝作品的涉獵,無論是興趣還是閱讀(觀影)量,都不比別的作品更多。我得承認,在寫這篇創作談之前,我剛在電影院里看了《銀翼殺手2049》,中間還打了一個盹兒。所以其實很難解釋,為什么在我剛剛開始一兩年的虛構生涯里,會接連寫了兩個疑似科幻的短篇小說,去年的《千里走單騎》和今年的《文學病人》。

              當然,對于這樣的標簽,科幻界多半不會同意。在文本中,我對于人工智能的那一點點停留于皮毛的認識,沒有可以討論的價值。那只夠我搭起一個簡陋的框架,擱上許多既不科學也非魔幻的內容。一直寫到第二節末尾我才知道我真正要寫的是什么。當時,毫無預兆地,一個句子從腦海直接跳到屏幕:“文學病人的癥狀與作品的指標一一對應。從他們皮膚上掠過的每一陣燥熱和微寒,每一個笑點和淚點,每一次走神再回來的時間,都決定了故事的生與死。”

              所以《文學病人》基本上是一個概念先行的故事,這一點倒是跟絕大部分科幻作品差不多。概念的來源也很簡單——機器人有沒有可能搶掉小說家的飯碗?如今,對于以文字安身立命者而言,出現類似的念頭很自然。甚至連靈感也談不上,更像是在無聊的傍晚,某個昏暗的角落里響起的,有一搭沒一搭的玩笑話。

              緊接著這個傍晚之后的清晨,我沒有放過這句玩笑。我開始給機器人和小說家的比賽設計規則。順著問題追下去,我發現所謂架空的未來,與現實自然地交疊在一起。我更關心的,不是這場奇怪的比賽的輸贏,而是作者與讀者的關系,文學的——毋寧說是故事的——本質、歷史、現實與未來。

              故事的危機,與其說來自于機器或者數據,不如說來自人類自身,來自越來越習慣于被“算法”(無論它來自于機器還是商業的、功利的需求)控制的作者和讀者,來自人類在積累了上萬年故事類型之后面臨的對于“枯竭”甚或“終結”的現代性恐慌。所以,在《文學病人》里,我讓人與機器的斗法最終演變成“作者”與“讀者”的對峙,并且在一場激烈的比賽里安排一個休整期,讓這兩個陣營都有機會派出代表來背靠背地向我們闡述觀點,從而構成吊詭的、讓人啼笑皆非的對照。用小說敘述者“我”的話說,“這兩撥人熱火朝天地折騰了一通,總算發覺大家都困在同一條戰壕里,于是決定再努力一把——然而他們各自努力的方向,似乎是互相抵消的。”

              讓情節和人物成為演示觀念碰撞的工具,這樣的寫法是否成立,是否達到我想要的效果?——說實話,我拿不準。但寫作《文學病人》的那幾天很快樂很過癮,差不多是一個積累了二十年外國文學編輯經驗的人在自言自語,同時排空一身毒素的過程。在這篇短短的小說里,我有機會一次性清算自己的文學觀,開兩句瑞典文學院和諾貝爾文學獎的玩笑,還能向自己熱愛的詩句致敬,在文字里埋藏我的私人閱讀史。小說里出現了多少文學人物和文學掌故,有興趣的讀者可以數一數。凡是能夠解釋的,我都在前后文略加照應,有些干脆就仿照翻譯小說的樣式,直接加注。所以,無論是《百年孤獨》或者《立體幾何》的開頭,還是愛打架的海明威和諾曼·梅勒,都以一種滑稽的狂歡姿態擠在我的小說中,合力制造某種迷人的幻覺:在文學的虛擬世界里,眾生平等。我們都發著低燒,我們都是文學病人。

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