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              《曹劌論戰》賞析

              2018-2-7 11:13| 編輯: admin| 查看: 25208| 評論: 0

              本篇選文又題作“齊魯長勺之戰”或“長勺之戰”。這一戰事發生在魯莊公十年(前684),是齊桓公即位后向魯國發動的第二次戰爭。 

              前此兩年,齊桓公(公子小白)與其庶兄公子糾曾進行過激烈的爭奪君位的斗爭。當時篡君奪位的公孫無知(齊襄公堂弟)已被殺,齊國一時無君,因此避難于魯國的公子糾和避難于莒國的公子小白都爭相趕回齊國。魯莊公支持公子糾主國,親自率軍護送公子糾返齊,并派管仲攔擊、刺殺公子小白。然而魯國的謀劃沒有成功,公子小白已出乎意料地搶先歸齊,取得了君位。齊桓公即位后當即反擊魯軍,兩軍交戰于乾時(齊地),齊勝魯敗。乘兵勝之威,齊桓公脅迫魯國殺掉了公子糾。齊桓公雖在其庶兄的血泊中鞏固了權位,但對魯國卻一直怨恨難平,因此轉年春便再次發兵攻魯,進行軍事報復和武力懲罰。本篇所記即是這次在魯地長勺展開的戰事。

              這是一篇文字簡短明快、內蘊豐富的記事散文。全文大致可分為三個段落。

              第一段寫戰前,寫曹劌請見莊公并與之討論進行的政治準備和用兵作戰的條件。面對齊國的進犯,曹劌是主動請求晉見莊公的,作者記了他與“鄉人”的一番對話。鄉人善意地勸說他不要去參與“肉食者”的事,曹劌卻坦直地回答:“肉食者鄙,未能遠謀。”“肉食者”是相對于“藿食者”而言的,顯然,這是以飯食精粗對執政貴族和平民所作的簡單劃分。與鄉人所表現出來的對“肉食者”和國事的冷漠態度相反,曹劌表示出對“肉食者”的不信任并積極要求參與國家的決策。“肉食者鄙”已為乾時之戰所證明,那一次“公喪戎路,傳乘而歸。秦子、梁子以公旗辟于下道,是以皆止”(《左傳》莊公九年)。如今齊軍壓境,豈可再讓國家敗在他們手中?接下去,曹劌與魯莊公圍繞“何以戰”的論題進行了嚴肅的對話。魯莊公心無成算,對曹劌鄭重的詢問作不出爽快切要的回答。他先提出“衣食”的分配,“弗敢專也,必以分人”;又說到神靈的祭祀,“犧牲玉帛,弗敢加也,必以信”。前者不是普遍施予民眾的實惠,無關戰事全局;后者是例行的宗教性禮節,并非對民眾的真誠許諾,因此二者都為曹劌所否定。唯有最后在莊公提出治理訟獄“必以情”的一點,曹劌認為“忠之屬也”還算是盡心務實的一項,認定“可以一戰”,并隨即提出直接參戰的要求。

              第二段寫兩軍交戰的實況。這一部分作者筆墨不多,但是魯軍如何進攻、追擊,齊軍如何敗績、潰逃的情形歷歷在目。曹劌適時選擇出擊、追擊的時機,他采取了后發制敵、以智取勝的戰術。當齊軍未動魯莊公急于搶先攻擊時,曹劌制止道:“未可。”直至齊軍三鼓之后,軍士勇氣衰竭,他才表示:“可矣。”魯軍一鼓作氣挫敗了齊軍。在追擊的問題上,曹劌確察虛實而后動,制止了莊公的魯莽,待下車察看齊軍車轍的軌跡、登軾瞭望齊軍麾幟旌旗之后,才果斷地表示:“可矣。”此戰魯軍大獲全勝。

              第三段,用補敘筆法寫戰役之后由曹劌論證戰術的選擇和克敵制勝的原因。這部分實際是全文的重點,它展示了曹劌作戰指揮智勇雙全的特點。“夫戰,勇氣也。”在此,曹劌所說“勇氣”,是戰時士氣的集中表現,是軍士臨戰時的激情和果敢拼殺的昂揚斗志。齊軍三鼓,魯軍并不應鼓而動,齊軍激發起來的勇氣沒有得到相對的呼應,反而很快由亢奮轉為衰憊。曹劌抓住了這種士氣和心理變化的有利時機號令魯軍,一舉得勝。此外警惕“大國難測”,不忘實地偵察,確證齊軍是敗潰而非詐退,也是擴大戰果、穩操勝券的重要原因。這段文字是從道理上對第二段戰事實況的分析和論述。

              從軍事角度說,長勺之戰所包含的內容是很豐富的。它著重說明了戰略防御的基本原則,正確掌握這些原則即可達到以弱勝強的目的。這一戰例歷來受到軍事家的重視,毛澤東也曾在《中國革命戰爭的戰略問題》中對長勺之戰作了軍事學的評論。

              從文學角度看,這又是一篇記述戰爭的佳作。作者取材精到,構思落筆立意高遠,既于敘事中撮取歷史經驗,又于行文中生動刻畫人物形象。曹劌是作者著意刻畫的主要人物。他具有卓越的軍事智謀和指揮才能,能在瞬息萬變的戰爭中沉著、冷靜、果斷地號令軍隊,曹劌就是長勺勝戰的權威和統帥。作者對他的稱美贊揚,含蓄于精心的描寫之中。文中多記曹劌簡短、果敢的言行:“請見”、“問戰”、“請從”、于戰斗中兩置可否……這一系列活動表現出一名出身下層而深謀遠慮的謀士的精明干練。作者巧妙地運用了比照映襯的修辭技法。以曹劌與“鄉人”的對比突出曹劌抗敵御侮的責任感和護衛宗國的政治熱忱。從曹劌與魯莊公的對比中,以莊公的駑鈍、浮躁反襯曹劌的機敏、持重。如果說,作者有意無意使魯莊公出丑,證明了“肉食者鄙”的斷言,那么也正是借此才使曹劌的聰明才智得到更理想的表現。

              本文的語言,無論是敘述還是人物對話,都極為簡潔精煉,表意說理,通達曉暢。行文中散句、排比、偶句錯落有致,增強了敘事寫人的生動效果。其中曹劌的語言尤為精彩,如戰場上的指揮用語,簡短明確,這不僅襯托出戰事緊迫無暇論析戰爭策略,也表現出曹劌思維敏捷和臨戰時堅定而自信的心態。

              (選自《中國文學鑒賞寶庫》,陜西人民教育出版社1995年版)

              (孫綠怡)

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