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              《鄭伯克段于鄢》賞析

              2018-2-8 09:29| 編輯: admin| 查看: 26802| 評論: 0

                《鄭伯克段于鄢》是編年體史書《左傳》的一個片段,卻儼然一篇完整而優美的記事散文。文章把發生在兩千七百多年前的這一歷史事件,具體可感地呈現在我們眼前,使我們仿佛真的進入了時間隧道,面對面地聆聽歷史老人繪聲繪色地講述這一事件的緣起、發生、發展和最后結局。從而,不僅讓我們明了這一歷史事件的真實情況,同時也讓我們看到了相關人物的內心世界,并進而感悟到鄭國最高統治者內部奪權斗爭的尖銳性和殘酷性。

                《鄭伯克段于鄢》能有這樣的藝術效果,有多方面的原因,但主要是記敘得法。此文并不平鋪直敘地記述事件的發展過程,而是緊緊抓住相關人物性格的發展邏輯及其言行展開記述。這樣,不僅使我們清楚地看到,正是相關人物的固有個性決定著事件的發展和結局;同時又使我們在事件的發展和結局中,更清楚地看到了相關人物的固有個性。

                通過《鄭伯克段于鄢》,我們還可以深刻地感悟到《左傳》的一種總體行文特點,即不著一褒字,也不著一貶字,而褒貶自在其中。這種手法,也正是《春秋》一書所用的手法。即后來常說的“春秋筆法”。即如我們所說的鄭莊公陰險狡詐、姜氏偏心溺愛、共叔段貪得無厭,并非作者直接告訴我們,而是通過他們各自的言行惟妙惟肖地表現出來。好的敘事體作品,作者的傾向是在真實而客觀地敘述和描寫故事的發展過程中自然而然地顯現出來的。

                《鄭伯克段于鄢》結構完整,情節波瀾起伏,人物形象鮮明生動.尤其是把鄭莊公老謀深算的性格刻畫的淋漓盡致.鄭莊公先封叔段于京,又聽任叔段"不度","命西鄙北鄙貳于己",既而"收貳以為己邑",最后"伐諸鄢",有人認為表現了莊公的"仁慈"和"忍讓",有人卻認為他是有意"養成其惡".此事是春秋開篇的第一則故事,除了說明多行不義必自斃之外還講說了兄弟的悌,以及后面潁考叔勸君,莊公掘地見母表現出的孝及君臣之義,是孝悌故事中的經典。

                “遂為母子如初”的結尾,有人稱之為丑劇,亦不為過,像姜氏母子這樣早已失去了普通人性的典型人物,在經過了一場你死我活的掙斗之后,能夠毫無芥蒂再敘什么天倫之樂嗎?何況在剛出生之時就埋下了怨恨的種子,“遂為母子如初”的“初”字就缺乏依據,顯得勉強了,血腥的廝殺早就把統治階級竭力宣揚的那層薄薄的“孝悌”的外衣撕得粉碎了。無怪乎史官對此事的評論也感到為難了。“孝子不匱、永錫爾類”這是作者針對潁考叔而說的。將孝道永賜予汝之族類,似乎是鄭莊公受到潁考叔孝母的感染,其實不過是莊公借此就坡下驢。他之所以欣然接受潁考叔的建議,不過是企圖縫補這些破碎的外衣,掩蓋已經充分暴露的骯臟的軀體和丑惡的靈魂。這也是千古奸雄的伎倆,因為在這里鄭莊公又集中地表現了他的偽善,而偽善是永遠和丑惡伴隨在一起的。

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