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              《召公諫厲王弭謗》賞析

              2018-2-9 09:31| 編輯: admin| 查看: 27846| 評論: 0

                本篇在結構上與前篇《祭公諫征犬戎》完全相同,仍然是諫因、諫言、諫果的三段式。首尾敘事,中間記言,事略言詳,記言為主,體現了《國語》的一般特點。但本文的開頭結尾卻仍有獨到之處。

                文章開頭,妙語傳神。“厲王虐,國人謗王”,寥寥七字,勝于千言。一邊是厲王虐,一邊是國人謗。謗由虐起,事出必然,因果明了,壁壘分明,一開篇便展現給讀者一對不可調和的矛盾。既引出召公苦諫的緣由,也為厲王的可悲下場埋下了伏筆。接下來厲王的一“怒”一“喜”,兩個動詞,如千鈞之力,又將矛盾推向高潮,且把這位暴虐無道的昏君形象斧砍刀削得更加逼真。結尾是戛然而止,給讀者留下很大的想象空間。開頭“國人莫敢言,道路以目”,此語真乃神來之筆,厲王以為高壓就可止謗,因而“大喜”,其實高壓下的沉默,只是火山噴發前的死寂。結尾“王弗聽,于是國人莫敢出言”,這是憤怒與反抗的巖漿在凝聚力量。終于火山噴發,國人暴動,厲王被逐,那該是何等壯觀的場面,何其復雜的斗爭。但作者全都略去,只寫了“三年,乃流王于彘”,淡淡的七個字,對厲王是何等輕蔑,而留給后人的思考又是何等深刻!

                召公的諫詞,前后都是比喻。前一個比喻,說明“防民之口”的害處;后一個比喻,說明“宣之于口”的好處。只有中間一段切入正題,以“天子聽政”總領下文,從正面寫了“宣之使言”的種種好處。從公卿列士,史、瞽、師、蒙,到百工庶人,廣開言路,暢所欲言,而后經天子斟酌取舍,補察時政,就使政策、政令不背真理。如此,恰當生動的比喻與嚴肅認真的正題有機結合,夾和成文,筆意縱橫,態度真誠,用心良苦。

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