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              現代詩的經典化:過濾 ·凈化 ·提純

              2018-2-9 09:38| 編輯: admin| 查看: 25469| 評論: 0

              現代詩接受的多端變頻與海量產出特點,連同不斷看漲的“自我推銷”,使得現代詩的“可靠性”經常處于“游移”之中。故而現代詩接受的正常化與高質量實現,少不了要依賴不可或缺的經典化過程。現代詩的潮水般漲落總是比其他文類更加泥沙俱下,魚目混珠,也由于接受中良莠難辨,薰蕕同器,眾多“誤讀”成為普遍“行規”而司空見慣,這就加劇現代詩接受不斷要重臨嚴峻環節——篩選與淘汰的反復工序,有如安裝在自來水管道的過濾裝置,經由各種軟化、磁化、礦化、電解、膜分離手段,達到水質的凈化、提純。

              現在,人們一談起經典,幾乎不約而同要提及卡爾維諾關于經典的14種定義。通俗地說,經典就是能夠經得住歷史檢驗的傳世之作,具有恒久的價值。時間(歷史)長度幾乎成了經典取舍的第一個尺度, 但歷史維度只是“金標準”的一半,如果歷史維度加上空間維度(區域、流派、社團、風格等)的橫向參數比較與“監控”,經典價值無疑增加了保險。但是,時間維度與空間維度的“合議庭”,最終授權還得回到讀者的“陪審團”,確切地說,經典的確證,取決于歷史化的龐大的陪審團的“裁決”。

              新詩、現代詩,其經典化過程依然“山重水復”,十分吃力。經常是,遴選新詩、現代詩的經典尺度十分明確,當觸到“邊界”時卻變得模糊;經典的內涵十分飽滿,外延竟相當疏離;經典的理念不可撼動,但操作層面上卻“節外生枝”。這或許可以歸結為現代詩這一精靈鬼的刁鉆習性:產量巨大,良莠難辨;多頭標準,“范式”走樣;超速嬗替、頻率過快,無以在短時期形成共享;尤其接受胃口多變,仁智各見,眾口難調,導致相對主義到處泛濫。各種干擾因素:資本的、情誼的、權利的、程序的、觀念的、話語的加入,造成種種波動與質變,這也是當代新詩、現代詩經典化反復折騰的重要原因。

              中國新詩有不少所謂經典,因意識形態助力而鵲聲四起,一時走紅,但最終還得落入明日黃花的歸途。歷史文化權重大大超乎審美權重的不良后果,勢必導致后來接二連三的“翻案”;長期被埋沒的杰出文本(如穆旦《詩八首》),最后還是眾望所歸,重見天日。最有意思的是詩人的自我淘汰,鐵面無私:1925年版《志摩的詩》收入《沙楊那拉十八首》,3年之后重印時,竟勇敢斃掉前面17首,只留最后一首,終成正果。同樣,《康橋再會吧》再版時也被詩人果斷砍掉,另作《再別康橋》——整整比《康橋再會吧》減少近五分之四篇幅。試想,要是徐志摩不對自己自戕自殺,“康橋”的流水還會流傳至今嗎?

              有鑒于此,近年《揚子江詩刊》汲取經典“變數”的教訓,努力進行一場重建經典的努力。例如對應于古詩十九首,它首開《新詩十九首》的篩選、甄拔。當時間積累到一定長度時,相信在各種經典“網眼”的篩選下,經典、準經典的“名單”有望更具說服力地浮出水面。現代新詩的經典化絕對不是簡單的加減,它既是歷史化過程,又是當代化進程。

              一般而言,經典化主要通過三大渠道:教化普及、傳播推廣、遴選到位。三者相輔相成,缺一不可。而其中涉及諸多具體環節:選本、年鑒、教材、史料、獎項、教學等相互促進,形成各種分力的總和。其中,可能某幾種分力過于羸弱,被某幾種強大分力“吃掉”,可能某幾種分力勢均力敵,最后會取得某種妥協的“平均值”;可能某一個絕好的歷史機遇,一下子凝集而迅速提升始料未及的價值效應,并且放大了結果;可能某一種權威機制,有意無意遮蔽了一個偉大的生命;也可能是萌芽中的經典,藏之“深山”,經過漫長的耐心等待、最終才熬出頭來。有人會憂慮:過早、過分的當代化,因多種因素干擾,會沖擊經典的真正形成。其實這些都是杞人憂天,我們要堅信歷史的總體合力,具有自洽性的清潔能力,最終的經典化會越來越接近公正。

              經典化有各種手段,多數時候采用的是模糊化的方式。近20年來,武漢大學王兆鵬團隊發現定性分析容易產生某些偏袒弊端,遂改為較客觀的計量分析。借鑒客觀計量,排除“印象”、“感受”、“直覺”帶來的人為爭訟,提供更令人信服的參數,作為有說服力的依據,比如文本進入視頻次數、朗誦次數、選本次數、評論次數、教科書次數、學位論文次數、研討次數、播送次數、轉載次數、引用次數等等,完全是可以做到的。盡管當代時間流變短暫,量化數據積累單薄,瑣細繁雜,不過只要有坐冷板凳的功夫,借助互聯網技術,總會在資料與數據的實證中,避免主觀干擾與非詩干擾。再比如引入相關的“大數據概念”:“一些數據,在傳統觀念看來與所要研究的問題可能毫不相干,但是許多不相干的信息在一起就會形成集成效應,會形成你所想象不到的因果關系和證據鏈。”將“因果關系和證據鏈”納入經典化的“檢索”系統,不啻是一個重要途徑。具體可采納的方法還有:函數(有序變化的關系);概率(隨機發生的可能性數值);變量(無序變化中的頻率、平均值、離散度);以及坐標、幾何結構圖形、表格等等。

              經典化過程,參照溫德爾·V·哈里斯的理論概括,歸結為7種功能:1.提供范本、理想和靈感,2.傳播思想遺產,3.創造共同的參照系,4.作家與經典的互惠,5.將理論合法化,6.具有某種需要解釋的歷史化力量,7.起到了文化多元化的功能。而這些重要的功能似可聚集為霍布斯鮑姆的一句名言,即“發明的傳統”。它通常呈現為一整套公開或私下接受的規則所控制的實踐活動,具有形式化和儀式化特征;它標明了某種與過去的聯系,但這種連續性往往是人為的,主要是為了應對變化了的新形勢;它在具有重大歷史意義的過去中被植入了新的傳統。

              不妨說,經典就是否定與發現的傳統,亦即發明的傳統。這樣的發明在聞一多《讀騷雜記》中有一段妙語:“一個歷史人物的偶像化的程度,往往是與時間成正比的,時間愈久,偶像化的程度愈深,而去事實也愈遠。如果說歷史人物的偶像化,可能會因時間愈久去事實愈遠,那么真正的經典作品的接受史則恰恰相反,時間愈久,對意蘊的闡發則會愈豐富愈深入。……每一時代總能在過去的偉大作品中發現某種新東西。”它實際上涉及經典化的“動態管理”。這也是近年有關“批評的經典性重估”與“群選性的經典更新”的討論。

              古典詩歌的經典化基本不成為問題,因為它早已擁有穩定的審美規范與接受規范。而現代新詩經典化一直處于變動之中,問題多多,筆者借此補充兩條,也接受大家的批評:

              一、現代詩經典化可同時建立兩大流通渠道。一種是大眾層面,呈現相對通俗、淺近的流行色;另一種是精英層面,對應于有一定詩歌訓練、具備前沿、尖端歷練的“無限少數人”。由于大眾與精英、通俗與先鋒,已經無法同時滿足兩種差距甚大的胃口,故而現代詩經典化最好考慮在詩歌王國實行“一國兩制”——構建大眾版經典與精英版經典,這樣的版圖應該更符合詩歌的接受現實。

              二、現代詩經典化受到時空的掌控。理想的愿景是:時間上,考慮經典的時間“刻度”須有所標示,像好酒的年代記號一樣,比如得經歷二三十年時段才能跨過“資格賽”,經歷半世紀的才算“正式注冊”,以此來杜絕各種“炒作”,和你追我趕的短效“排行榜”。空間上,則要確立越經歷不同層次的讀者的共同認可,越具經典成色,以此為時間性多加一道保險。

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