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              科爾森·懷特黑德:我想虛構,充分地虛構

              2018-2-22 10:20| 編輯: admin| 查看: 24933| 評論: 0

              2018年第一期《小說界》,刊登了對作家科爾森·懷特黑德的專訪。科爾森·懷特黑德所撰寫的描述黑奴女孩逃離種植園的小說《地下鐵道》勇奪2016年美國國家圖書大獎,再于2017年摘得普利策獎。

               

              1980年代,紐約上東區,有個十六歲的高中生在雜貨店里買啤酒,準備隨后去參加朋友的派對。一個警員突然出現在他面前,沒有廢話,直接要求他把雙手放在背后,再把這茫然的男孩帶到警車旁,拷上了手銬,理由是:幾個街區外有位白人女士被搶劫了,而這個男孩是警員發現的第一個黑人少年。幸好白人女士搖搖頭:不是他。男孩這才被警員放走。事實上,男孩并不是很驚訝,因為父親早就告誡過:我們一出門就是顯眼的目標。在那個年代,有好些年輕黑人在城區里閑逛時遭到毆打,甚至被打死。但對這個男孩來說,這是他第一次切身體驗到種族歧視。

              雖然住在上東區,但這個男孩的家族史繞不開奴隸制和種族歧視。他的祖母在1920年代從巴巴多斯島來到美國,那個島就是一個很大的種植園,產糖;而且,眾所周知,加勒比海地區的奴隸壓迫更為殘暴。他的外祖父也曾為奴。只要往前追溯一百年,就會發現:黑人家族中會經歷過不同形式、不同區域的奴役。“我的父母不會把黑奴歷史天天掛在嘴邊,但他們會讓孩子們意識到:這個國家的種族歧視有多么嚴重,問題在于你要如何面對這種狀況,并在這種國家里擁有幸福的生活。”反種族歧視的進程迂回、漫長又艱辛,但始終在往好的方向走。在奧巴馬當選總統后,有一天他為了參加活動特意打了領帶,十一歲的女兒就很高興地說:爸爸你看起來就像總統!這話在他聽來別有意味:只能說明女兒這一代已不再認為有色人種當總統是天方夜譚了……但他還要跑遍全世界強調種族歧視依然嚴峻的事實。

              三十年后,這位名叫科爾森·懷特黑德的大男孩依然生活在紐約,畢業于哈佛大學英美文學系,娶了一位美貌聰慧的白人太太(她是一位成功的文學經紀人),養育了兩個孩子,并因描述黑奴女孩逃離種植園的小說《地下鐵道》勇奪2016年美國國家圖書大獎,再于2017年摘得普利策獎,并入圍布克獎決選。

              Q —— 《小說界》

              A —— 科爾森· 懷特黑德

              Q:《地下鐵道》讓更多人認識了你,以及之前的七部作品,但我們還不太了解你。請問你從什么時候開始決定以寫作為生?

              A:十歲開始我瘋狂地看《蜘蛛俠》那類漫畫,還有斯蒂芬·金的恐怖小說,還有《The Twilight Zone》——我不知道這里有沒有人知道這部黑白電視劇……總之,我十歲就認定:當作家是個很酷的職業,隨心所欲地編造吸血鬼、機器人的奇幻故事,多好玩啊!而且可以待在家里!

              Q:那么早啊?所以是有目的地進入高等學府,為了完成自己的文學夢想?

              A:當然,一直到讀大學,我才開始嚴肅地對待這個夢想,主修英美文學,但我不只是想寫純文學,也想寫科幻,寫了一大堆吸血鬼……

              Q:從作品年表上看,你的文學夢之路還蠻順暢的,如果拿到布克獎,坊間就會贊你是大滿貫得主!請問這是怎么做到的?

              A:這個嘛,你不會一開始就知道寫下去會得獎……三十歲不到的那幾年,我基本上就是個loser,寫了部長篇小說,但人見人不愛,被25家出版社拒了,回想起來,大概就是在那個時候,我決定再寫一部——雖然已經寫了一部失敗的作品,但期望能寫出更好的作品——總之,我不會再去法學院之類的地方進修,我別無選擇,只能從頭再來。

              Q:真的想過去法學院?

              A:唉,父母都希望你有份正經的工作,當律師、醫生、銀行家……都是衣食無憂的好選擇。我明白父母覺得寫作不太靠譜,所以畢業后我先去《村聲》雜志社當記者,當編輯,那段經歷教會我如何與人合作,如何編輯自己的作品,如何保持自制力,如何按時交稿——以便按時采買日常用品。

              Q:第一本沒賣出去,也沒有找“正經工作”,那你是從何時開始確定自己可以完成文學夢?

              A:第一本書沒人買,寫第二本(《直覺主義者》)時我就想在情節上多下點功夫,把結構支起來,可以玩轉人物和情節。重點是寫一個不像我自己的主人公,所以我寫了女性主人公;也做了些重要的嘗試:不用第一人稱,不融入自己的形象和聲音,注重結構和情節。那之后,我決定當一個好作家。

              Q:17年前你先有了“把地下鐵道寫成真實存在的鐵道”的idea,但三年前才正式動筆成文。這么長的創作過程里,有過哪些設定上的重大變化?

              A:一開始主人公是逃往北方的男性,也許是為了尋找失散的愛侶,也許是為了追尋雙親,后來發現母女關系是我未曾嘗試過的,所以決定挑戰一下自己。

              Q:有傳聞說,是因為你有了女兒,對母女關系、家族關系有了更深的理解,所以才把主人公定為年輕女孩……

              A:為人父母確實在很多方面改變了我,但把本書的主人公改成年輕的女孩,并不是因為我有了女兒(笑)。最主要的原因是:我的前兩本書都是男性主人公,不希望這本還是那個調調。我想讓自己的幾本書有截然不同的區分。

              另一方面,雅各布斯(Harriet Jacobs)的自傳也對我產生很大的影響。她在北卡羅來納州的閣樓里被迫躲藏了七年。她在書中寫道,當女奴從女孩變成女人,所經歷的奴役內容就會成倍增多,要生養更多孩子,給奴隸主帶去更多收益。從這個層面講,女奴和男奴的境遇是不同的,當然,都很凄慘,但用女奴做主角,會給故事帶來更多的維度。

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