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              《耳聞不如一見》顧均正

              2018-3-16 14:44| 編輯: admin| 查看: 24939| 評論: 0

                在郭老新編的話劇“蔡文姬”里,提到了蔡文姬的父親蔡邕(yōng)所造的那張焦尾琴。最近我看了“蔡文姬”的演出,自然而然想起了焦尾琴,想起了關于焦尾琴的故事:

                蔡邕因為不愿趨附權貴,怕被人陷害,曾經亡命江南,往來于吳會之間(今江、浙一帶),計十二年。據說他在吳(今蘇州)的時候,有一天聽見鄰家燒飯的柴火中發出一種爆裂的聲音,他熟悉這種聲音,知道這聲音來自一種極好的桐木,這種桐木是造琴的最好材料。他就跟鄰家主人商量,把這段燒焦了的桐木要了來,造成一張琴。這張琴彈起來果然非常好聽。因為它的一端是燒焦的,所以大家都叫它焦尾琴。

                當我想起這個故事的時候,使我對“耳聞不如目見”這句成語不能不有所懷疑。的確,我們認識這個物質世界,有時候不是用眼睛來看而是用耳朵來聽的。蔡邕能夠從木材燃燒時發出的爆裂聲來辨別木材的好壞,充分說明了“耳聞”不一定“不如目見”。當然,“耳聞不如目見”這句話的原意是指間接經驗不如直接經驗那樣可靠,這是完全正確的。但是,如果對這句話只是從字面上來理解,認為耳朵聽到的總不如眼睛看見的那樣可靠,那對耳朵來說,卻是極大的冤枉。

                我們應該承認,眼睛是直接經驗的主要來源,可是我們也承認,眼睛是最會騙人的。舉一個極普通的例子來說,我們大家覺得早晨的太陽比中午的太陽大得多,可是如果你用照相機給太陽在早晨和中午各照一個相,你就會發現攝得的相片是一樣大小的。誰會想到,在這個每天接觸到的日常現象上,從古到今,無論是什么人,無論在什么地方,都一直在受著眼睛的騙?并且騙得我們好苦,不但古代的大學問家如孔子,沒有能回答為什么早晨的太陽看起來會大于中午的太陽,連現代的科學家,對這個問題也不曾有一個令人十分滿意的解釋。這個現象對迷信眼睛的人來說,是一個有力的諷刺。

                當然,我們這樣說,并不是要否定眼睛的作用。我們只是說明,眼睛雖然有非常廣闊的活動范圍,可是它是有缺點的。我們不能迷信眼睛,小看了耳朵的作用。

                耳朵的活動范圍雖然小,可是它的作用也不只是聽聽講話,聽聽音樂。它還有其他的特殊功用。在某種場合,它不但無愧于“以耳代目”這句話,而且比眼睛做得更好。
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