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              《取瑟而歌:如何理解新詩》后記

              2018-7-18 10:18| 編輯: admin| 查看: 13114| 評論: 0

                      “取瑟而歌”這個名字,是從《論語?陽 貨篇》里抄出來的,“孺悲欲見孔子,孔子辭以 疾。將命者出戶,取瑟而歌,使之聞之”。但用 在這本書上,其實和原文的意思未必有什么關系,我只是喜歡這幾個字和它的意象,原來人和人之間除了執手相見之外,另有一種婉轉鄭重的交流方式,那就是歌。并且我也喜歡“瑟” 這個字有莊重嚴肅的意思,又做了樂器名,仿佛那些極深重堅決的感情,就是要化在輕絲朱弦上,方才可以穿過空間,也穿過時間。

              陽貨篇里,就在“取瑟而歌”之前,是一節關于孔子“予欲無言”的記述,“子曰:‘予欲無言 。 ’ 子貢曰:‘ 子如不 言 ,則小子何述焉 ? ’ 子曰:‘天何言哉?四時行焉,百物生焉,天何言哉?’”我覺得相連的這兩節可以放在一起看,詩歌不是言語,不單純是要表達一個人想 說的話。一個人之所以寫詩,或者再把詩唱成歌,是因為一些難以言喻的情感,因為他明了言語在表達、記述和理解感受之間必然遭遇的重重變形,詩歌起源于對言語的不滿,起源于這種不滿之后的沉默。

              說起來,孺悲也未必是一個讓孔子討厭的人,只是名字不太好,叫做“悲”。古典著作要言不煩,里面的人物姓名很多 都有其寓意,可以當作寓言來看。這段孺悲見孔子的故事,如果從寓言的角度,那就是“年輕的悲哀”求見哲人,被拒絕; 作為補償,他聽到了不想說話的哲人從看不見的地方傳來的歌聲。另有記載說,孺悲是魯哀公派來向孔子學習士喪禮的,這 更印證了“悲”這個名字的由來。一個尋求喪禮儀式知識的 年輕悲哀者,遭遇的卻首先是歌聲的洗禮,這里面也可以有很深的意思。歌以言志,志是士心,單憑悲哀本身并不能勝任死亡的儀式,他還需要先懂得生者的心事,是所謂“未知生,焉知死”。

              這本小書里涉及的五位詩人,都是逝者,但借助詩歌的力量,他們似乎依舊還在中文的世界里繼續生長。因此這本小書 愿意談論的,是他們作為現在進行時態的生,而非過去完成時態的死。

              寫詩是艱難的,談論詩和詩人也同樣艱難。這也是斷續在 寫一點新詩的我,此前卻很少涉足新詩評論的緣故。所以要謝謝程永新老師,如果不是他在 2015 年邀我給《收獲》雜志新 設的“明亮的星”欄目寫顧城和海子,恐怕我不會起意再寫其 他幾位詩人;而如果不是《收獲》雜志最初在篇幅上所給出的足夠空間,恐怕我也難以想象自己隨后會完成這一場場漫長的征程。還要謝謝《書城》雜志的李慶西老師,《單讀》的吳琦兄和《上海文學》的來穎燕女士,他們一直給予我莫大的信任和鼓勵,自己不成熟的文字能經由他們的手來編發,是我的榮幸。而這本小書里最長的一篇文章,則尚未發表過,可能我希望率先看到它的,是這本書的讀者。此外,要感謝我的編輯顧曉清,從《既見君子》到《取瑟而歌》,五年時光如白駒過隙,我但愿在她一如既往嚴格和耐心的審視下,自己尚能保存幾分新發于硎的氣息。

              還有幾位朋友見證了這本書的形成,并給予很多很好的意 見,但我想把對他們的感謝保存在心底,而倘若被問及寫作或 詩歌對我而言究竟何為,我或許就會默念他們的名字,那親密的,和未曾相見的,同時代者。

              張定浩

              二〇一八年五月一日于上海寓所

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