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              《教戰守策》

              2019-1-22 11:01| 作者: 蘇軾|編輯: admin| 查看: 2384| 評論: 0

                夫當今生民之患,果安在哉?在于知安而不知危,能逸而不能勞。此其患不見于今,而將見于他日。今不為之計,其后將有所不可救者。

                昔者先王知兵之不可去也,是故天下雖平,不敢忘戰。秋冬之隙,致民田獵以講武,教之以進退坐作之方,使其耳目習于鐘鼓旌旗之間而不亂,使其心志安于斬刈殺伐之際而不懾。是以雖有盜賊之變,而民不至于驚潰。及至后世,用迂儒之議,以去兵為王者之盛節,天下既定,則卷甲而藏之。數十年之后,甲兵頓弊,而人民日以安于佚樂,卒有盜賊之警,則相與恐懼訛言,不戰而走。開元、天寶之際,天下豈不大治?惟其民安于太平之樂,豢于游戲酒食之間,其剛心勇氣,銷耗鈍眊,痿蹶而不復振。是以區區之祿山一出而乘之,四方之民,獸奔鳥竄,乞為囚虜之不暇,天下分裂,而唐室固以微矣。

                蓋嘗試論之:天下之勢,譬如一身。王公貴人所以養其身者,豈不至哉?而其平居常苦于多疾。至于農夫小民,終歲勤苦,而未嘗告病。此其故何也?夫風雨、霜露、寒暑之變,此疾之所由生也。農夫小民,盛夏力作,而窮冬暴露,其筋骸之所沖犯,肌膚之所浸漬,輕霜露而狎風雨,是故寒暑不能為之毒。今王公貴人,處于重屋之下,出則乘輿,風則襲裘,雨則御蓋。凡所以慮患之具,莫不備至。畏之太甚,而養之太過,小不如意,則寒暑入之矣。是以善養身者,使之能逸而能勞;步趨動作,使其四體狃于寒暑之變;然后可以剛健強力,涉險而不傷。夫民亦然。今者治平之日久,天下之人驕惰脆弱,如婦人孺子,不出于閨門。論戰斗之事,則縮頸而股栗;聞盜賊之名,則掩耳而不愿聽。而士大夫亦未嘗言兵,以為生事擾民,漸不可長。此不亦畏之太甚,而養之太過歟?

                且夫天下固有意外之患也。愚者見四方之無事,則以為變故無自而有,此亦不然矣。今國家所以奉西北之虜者,歲以百萬計。奉之者有限,而求之者無厭,此其勢必至于戰。戰者,必然之勢也。不先于我,則先于彼;不出于西,則出于北。所不可知者,有遲速遠近,而要以不能免也。天下茍不免于用兵,而用之不以漸,使民于安樂無事之中,一旦出身而蹈死地,則其為患必有不測。故曰:天下之民,知安而不知危,能逸而不能勞,此臣所謂大患也。

                臣欲使士大夫尊尚武勇,講習兵法;庶人之在官者,教以行陣之節;役民之司盜者,授以擊刺之術。每歲終則聚于郡府,如古都試之法,有勝負,有賞罰。而行之既久,則又以軍法從事。然議者必以為無故而動民,又撓以軍法,則民將不安,而臣以為此所以安民也。天下果未能去兵,則其一旦將以不教之民而驅之戰。夫無故而動民,雖有小怨,然熟與夫一旦之危哉?

                今天下屯聚之兵,驕豪而多怨,陵壓百姓而邀其上者,何故?此其心以為天下之知戰者,惟我而已。如使平民皆習于兵,彼知有所敵,則固以破其奸謀,而折其驕氣。利害之際,豈不亦甚明歟?

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