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              《孫征君傳》

              2019-1-23 11:14| 作者: 方苞|編輯: admin| 查看: 2706| 評論: 0

                孫奇逢,字啟泰,號鐘元,北直容城入也。少倜儻,好奇節,而內行篤修;負經世之略,常欲赫然著功烈,而不可強以仕。先是,高攀龍、顧憲成講學東林,海內士大夫立名義者多附焉。及天啟初,逆奄魏忠賢得政,叨穢者爭出其門,而目東林諸君子為黨。由是楊漣、左光斗、魏大中、周順昌、繆昌期次第死廠獄,禍及親黨。而奇逢獨與定興鹿正、張果中傾身為之,諸公卒賴以歸骨,世所傳“范陽三烈士”也。

                方是時,孫承宗以大學士兼兵部尚書經略薊、遼,奇逢之友歸安茅元儀及鹿正之子善繼皆在幕府。奇逢密上書承宗,承宗以軍事疏請入見。忠賢大懼,繞御床而泣,以嚴旨遏承宗于中途。而世以此益高奇逢之義。臺垣及巡撫交薦屢征,不起,承宗欲疏請以職方起贊軍事,使元儀先之,奇逢亦不應也。其后畿內盜賊數駭,容城危困,乃攜家入易州五公山,門生親故從而相保者數百家,奇逢為教條部署守御,而弦歌不輟。

                入國朝,以國子祭酒征,有司敦趣,卒固辭。移居新安,既而渡河,止蘇門百泉。水部郎馬光裕奉以夏峰田廬,逆率子弟躬耕,四方來學,愿留者,亦授田使耕,所居遂成聚。

                奇逢始與鹿善繼講學,以象山、陽明為宗,及晚年,乃更和通朱子之說。其治身務自刻砥,執親之喪,率兄弟廬墓側凡六年。人無賢愚,茍問學,必開以性之所近,使自力于庸行。其與人無町畦,雖武夫悍卒工商隸圉野夫牧豎,必以誠意接之,用此名在天下,而人無忌嫉者。方楊、左在難,眾皆為奇逢危,而忠賢左右皆近畿人,夙重奇逢質行,無不陰為之地者。鼎革后,諸公必欲強起奇逢,平涼胡廷佐曰:“人各有志,彼自樂處隱就閑,何故必令與吾儕一轍乎?”居夏峰二十有五年,卒,年九十有二。

                河南北學者,歲時奉祀百泉書院,而容城與劉因、楊繼盛同祀,保定與孫文正承宗、鹿忠節善繼并祀學宮,天下無知與不知,皆稱曰夏峰先生。

                贊曰:先兄百川聞之夏峰之學者,征君嘗語人曰:“吾始自分與楊、左諸賢同命,及涉亂離,可以犯死者數矣,而終無恙,是以學貴知命而不惑也。”征君論學之書甚具,其質行,學者譜焉,茲故不論,而獨著其犖犖大者。方高陽孫少師以軍事相屬,先生力辭不就,眾皆惜之,而少師再用再黜,訖無成功,《易》所謂“介于石,不終日”者,其殆庶幾耶。

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