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              《苔》前 言

              2019-6-19 13:19| 編輯: admin| 查看: 673| 評論: 0

              方言之魅,職人之作

              文\歐寧

              這是一部30 萬字的“巨構”,時間跨度從光緒九年(1883)到辛亥革命(1911),與李劼人的“大河三部曲”(《死水微瀾》《暴風雨前》《大波》)幾乎相同。《苔》的故事發生地為嘉定(樂山舊稱),周愷顯然下定決心來寫一部他家鄉的斷代史。隔著這么久遠的距離卻又要寫出“臨場感”,這正是小說要迎接的挑戰。它與歷史研究之類的非虛構寫作不同,不僅要求作者收集和研究原始素材的能力,更考驗作者的想象力和重新組織敘事的能力。不像很多從個人經歷出發的年輕作者,周愷一開始就偏向用第三人稱講述“他人”的故事,他沒有被自己的肉身體驗所限,而是依靠閱讀和考證去拓展自己的眼界,到方志、族牒、傳奇、掌故、舊聞中去開挖他的文學礦藏。

              這部長篇從一個回鄉重整家業的地方縉紳李普福尋找新生兒承續家族香火寫起,以桑農劉基業的兩個兒子的不同命運為兩條線索(李世景被抱入李家成為土豪繼承人,最后資助革命黨;劉太清則留在底層成為石匠,最后變成綠林山匪),中間穿插了甲午戰爭、義和團運動、新學的興起、科舉的終結、保路運動等歷史事件,把大清政權的危機、反對派的滋長、秘密會社的活躍、地方秩序的迭代、大家族沒落的故事,漸次編織在周愷的家鄉地理的經緯網絡上,把嘉定這個地方的二十多年的嬗變濃縮于一冊書寫。相對于王笛和司昆侖那些以真實和科學為準繩、聚焦于四川特定時期的微觀史學著作,這樣的文學書寫能把讀者更深入地帶到更逼真的歷史現場。隨著敘事線索的展開和文學細節的放大,讀者仿佛身臨其境,目睹眼前發生的一切。這也是為什么美國史學的代表人物史景遷(Jonathan D. Spence)和孔飛力(Philip A.Kuhn)等時常也要收納文學作品這種非信史材料,甚至汲取文學敘事的寫法。周愷在這部小說中對哥老會和民間手工業行會的規條和切口、地方團練的層級和組織方式、農業生產和商業流通的

              各個環節、妓寨和煙館的空間場景、蜀地民俗的細枝末節、清末學制和課程的設置等等的細致還原,已經達至學術研究和田野調查的精確要求。他在這方面下的苦功夫,夯實了他的虛構寫作的歷史背景,為故事的敘述鋪設了清晰可見的時代底色。而對那個時代的樂山方言的進一步淬煉,更是加強了這部小說的“地方感”(sense of place)。

              《苔》對李劼人的“大河三部曲”的師承痕跡是非常明顯的,但讓周愷區別于李劼人的,正是他們各自寫了不同的“地方”:李劼人寫的是成都地區,周愷寫的是樂山地區,盡管共享了四川一省的歷史和文化資源,但它們分屬兩人文學世界不同的“原鄉”。每個“地方”,大至一國、一省、一城,細至一個街區、一個村莊,都有各自的DNA,它們之間的差別可以非常細微。通常辨識一個“地方”的依據是“地方知識”,古希臘稱之為“米提斯”(metis),它是指一個地方獨有的無法被轉譯為通識的經驗。例如方言、地方性的度量衡、未經規劃自發形成的社區地理、歷史記憶、鄰里關系、身份認同、食物偏好、傳統手工藝、以身體進行記憶的秘訣等等,它是匿名的,沒有個人著作權的,它會根據日常生活的需要不斷進行調適,但始終根植于一方水土,幫助形成地方風俗和地方性格。對這種地方知識的獲得,來源于生于斯長于斯的生命經歷以及后天繼發的研究,它對人的長期濡化,進而會使人形成對家鄉的“戀地情結”(topophilia),這個詞由英國詩人約翰? 貝杰曼(John Betjeman)首創,后來被美籍華裔地理學家段義孚普及,用來指稱人與地方或環境的情感紐帶。正是這種指向不同的“戀地情結”,形成了李劼人和周愷文學世界的差異。

              《苔》可以稱得上是樂山“地方知識”的集大成者,而周愷對樂山的“戀地情結”,則在當下中國的文學生態中發育生成了一個閉合自足的地景系統。如同《繁花》一樣,它是對全球化無差別文學生產線的抵抗。從全世界的范圍看來,中國當代文學是眾多語種寫作中的一個小的系統,而地方性題材的方言寫作又是更小的系統。從國族差別的角度來說,不管是中國哪個地方的方言寫作,都要從他們共享的中文傳統文學資源中尋找養分,這樣才可以形成與其他國家或語種不同的“中國性”,而不同國家或語種的流通,則要交給翻譯來完成。從《苔》和《繁花》往前追溯,可以看見的是一條從李劼人的“大河三部曲”到曾樸的《孽海花》,到曹雪芹的《紅樓夢》,再到明清話本的清晰的營養鏈,不同時期的文學風景扎根于不同的地理和歷史,但它們血脈相通,共處于多元化的世界文學的同一生態位。誠然,地方性的寫作會提高交流成本,一部30 萬字的中文小說可能不符合英語出版市場適當可控的字數標準,但作家不以市場為導向的寫作以及他們作品中的地方印記,才是真正有機的世界文學圖景的構成要素,它們是從不同的土壤中生長出來的千差萬別的植物,而非工業流水線上的標準產品。

              閱讀《苔》如同欣賞一件職人手作,它以經年累月的勞動打磨而成,你不知道它的竅門在哪兒,但光滑的語感和復雜的故事肌理讓你驚奇不已。又如同在市井街頭茶館聽人擺龍門陣,只見七嘴八舌,人聲鼎沸,但說法千頭萬緒,真假莫辨。它涉及的人物五花八門,都是動蕩時代里如苔草般附土求存的生命,在方言和地方環境的包裹下,個個都帶有川人的性格因子:從精明的富商李普福,到狡黠的蟻民劉基業;從懵懂成長的李世景,到淪為匪寇的劉太清;從道貌岸然的書院山長袁東山,到激進勇猛的革命黨人稅相臣;還有數不清的次要人物和眾多的女性角色,但小說沒有女主角,唯一著墨較多的是李普福的幺姨太,因與劉基業私通而被溺斃。如同徐皓峰的一部民國小說《大日壇城》一樣,《苔》寫的也基本上是一個以男性為主的世界,里面的女性人物在故事主線中沒占多少篇幅,或者寫到了,但人物欠缺主體性,這恐怕也要和徐皓峰一樣遭到女性主義讀者的詬病。幺姨太雖然敢于越軌,但并不像李劼人《死水微瀾》里的鄧幺姑那么火爆激烈。李劼人寫鄧幺姑,是自然主義的寫法,并不是對流行的婦女解放觀念的圖解。讀者大可不必執著于五四新文化運動以來婦女解放的政治正確,也不必用今天的性別理論去要求一個虛構的歷史故事。自然主義是十九世紀下半葉法國產生的文學流派,主張超級真實,作家要隱藏自我,力求客觀,按事物的本來面目來寫作,不強加觀點,不塑造典型人物,不追求戲劇性。這個在二十世紀已不是什么新手法,它甚至被引申為超級寫實主義(Hyperrealism)繪畫和雕塑,以及真實電影(Cinéma Vérité)的基本原則。

              《苔》繼承了李劼人的自然主義筆法,孜孜以求一個地方歷史的真實。為了保持客觀冷靜,它甚至去掉了《陰陽人甲乙卷》中那種帶有歷史書寫者口吻的評論和感慨。樂山和四川的讀者應該感謝周愷,他為自己的家鄉寫作了一部充滿地方風情和民間野趣的大傳。《天南》曾經的作者阿乙和任曉雯最近出版的《早上九點叫醒我》和《好人宋沒用》也是展開地方書寫的長篇作品,前者聚焦江西瑞昌,后者聚焦上海,都是他們各自的出生地。這令我想起小時閱讀的黃谷柳的《蝦球傳》,盡管帶著我那時尚不能辨識的意識形態色彩,但它對珠江三角洲泛粵語地區的風土人情的描寫卻令我備感親切。我們的生命被造物主投放在一個不能自擇的地理上的小點,隨著我們的成長,這個陌生的空間慢慢變得熟悉,慢慢變成承載記憶的一個地方,當我們離鄉遠行,它變成了我們不斷思念的原鄉。在全球化無遠弗屆、人與事激烈變遷的時代,我們需要這樣的文學作品,來保存我們的地方知識,激活我們的地方記憶。

              2018 年4 月23 日,芝罘


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