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              生態批評亟須“瘦身”

              2019-7-4 16:50| 作者: 高春民|編輯: admin| 查看: 196| 評論: 0

              因生態危機的嚴峻性與生態運動的復雜性,生態批評作為一種文學批評理論迅猛發展。然而,它不是一把萬能鑰匙,而是有其自身的理論背景、邊界視域、研究對象及理論限度。在生態批評實踐中,它承載了太多負荷以致有過度越界與無限泛化之嫌,無形中減損其有效性與“公信力”,甚至會從根本上解構與取消自身。

              合理運用生態批評

              生態批評作為一種文學批評方法肇始于20世紀70 年代并迅速風靡全球,這與現代工業化造成的生態危機及人類由此面臨的生存危機緊密相關。事實上,人類關注自然環境的變化,源于它開始危及人類的生存,這是生態批評源發的理論背景與邏輯前提。

              “生態批評”(Ecocriticism),從詞源上講,似乎是將生態學與文學研究結合起來的批評方法;從詞語結構看,是關于生態的批評,而非批評的生態。因而,關于生態一詞的界定是生態批評正源其說的關鍵所在。本質而言,生態批評之“生態”乃生態學意義而非延伸或比喻意義上的生態。這就要求我們在付諸實踐時不可漠視現代工業化這一現實背景,也不可將其無限擴大或有意縮小。否則,生態批評將喪失本源內涵,不再具有原發性的價值及效力。

              然而,縱覽當下學界對于生態批評理論的運用,有意無意地忽略了這一現實語境,尤其在對古代文獻的生態資源與智慧的挖掘和闡釋上存在過猶不及之嫌。諸如“莊子是我國古代最重視生態文明的偉大思想家”“生態意識在我國古代早已有之”等觀點難以讓人信服。生態意識是關于生態的自覺意識,它與生態危機互為表里,并非自古至今一直存在。筆者認為,中國古代文獻中并沒有現今意義上的“生態意識”,只是關于自然和宇宙的樸素哲學、倫理觀念而已。因而,對于古代生態資源的挖掘與闡釋,應分析其產生的歷史語境,準確把握其原初意義,并由此推演闡釋符合現代生態意義的思想,不可強行賦以現代理念,生硬地上升為“生態意識”。

              筆者以為,從古代文獻中挖掘樸素的自然觀念,以豐富當今生態批評理論形態,無可厚非,但不顧歷史語境的變化,而以當下生態批評理論為基點或視角反觀、解讀與闡釋古代文獻,便顯得不合時宜。由此可見,罔顧生態批評的時代語境而將其肆意擴延,不得不說是對生態批評方法的一種理論逾越與強制演繹,這樣的批評行為無疑是乏力甚至無效的。

              生態批評要重視自然因素

              跨學科視野下的學術研究,幾近成為當下學術生產最具活力且取得“實績”的領域與生長點。生態批評是跨學科視野下衍生的理論產物。這種跨學科的視域使生態批評具有寬泛性、廣延性及開放性。然而,任何一種獨立的理論形態,都必然有一個清晰的研究對象與話題范域,而非漫無邊界。一種理論形態研究對象與話題范圍的形成或界定,一方面要考察其作為一種理論形態所產生的時代背景與所承擔的現實任務,同時又要全面考量與之相關且一貫承傳的思想資源及其所指涉的對象與亟須解決的問題。換言之,生態批評既要上承傳統又要延及當下,既要有傳統理論蘊含的力量,又要對新問題提出新的策略與方法。前者要求生態批評要顧及學科的延續性及傳承性,后者決定了生態批評須有創新性及指涉時代的介入性。

              生態批評的學理性質為飽含生態維度的文學批評,生態關懷是其理論延展的前提與終極目標。這就決定了其研究對象與話題范圍必然是以人與自然關系書寫為核心的生態文學作品,是作者本著自覺的生態意識、以審美方式觀照生態問題(尤其是探尋人與自然關系)的文學作品。當下的生態批評實踐,重在從人與自然、人與社會及人與自身三個維度對文本內容予以闡釋。然而,三個維度之間的內在邏輯卻不被批評者與闡釋者重視。從生態批評內在本質講,三者之間并非簡單的并列關系,而是有深層與密切的因果關聯,即人與自然生態關系是人與社會、人與自身生態關系存在的前提和基礎,亦即社會生態、精神生態的變化一定是自然生態變化之后的產物。因而,反映人與社會、自然與社會也好,反映人與自身、自然與主體精神也罷,必然要在人與自然生態關系基礎之上衍生而來。否則,生態批評便與其他文學批評理論沒有差異。

              令人遺憾的是,當下諸多關于社會生態與精神生態作品的解讀,不同程度地遮蔽了生態批評與自然生態之間的邏輯關聯,使其消弭了理論特異之處。如果不彰顯自然生態在生態批評理論中的核心要義,那么所謂生態批評對社會與精神問題的闡釋,與傳統社會歷史批評對社會問題的關注,道德批評對文學作品所潛隱的倫理道德與人的精神世界的解讀并無兩樣。其實,生態危機對人類生存的影響,就是人與自然關系的錯位導致了社會與自然關系的扭曲,進而蔓延至人的精神領域,最終呈現人精神世界的荒蕪與失衡的境狀,而生態批評的實踐過程往往忽視了對這一邏輯關聯的揭示或體味。

              誠如學者王諾所言,“生態批評不能脫離自然去研究文學文本中單純的人與人的關系、人與社會的關系、人的內心世界”。這一觀點與魯樞元不謀而合:“必須恢復‘自然’在文學批評中的地位,把‘自然’作為生態文藝學中一個基本的范疇。”可見,隨意擴大生態批評的話題范圍,會減損生態批評的有效性和“公信力”,甚至從根本上解構和取消生態批評。

              生態批評理論要有界限

              生態批評的出現使“自然”終于從幕后走向臺前,從“缺席”變成“在場”,表明文學研究開始重啟新面向。生態批評以現實關懷、時代責任、倫理關愛為研究方向,極具現實指涉力與學科延展性。然而,它終究處于建構階段,理論上仍需探索,有諸多尚需解決的問題。例如:生態批評如何面對文學作品中呈現的生存與發展的悖論問題?如何看待科技對人類擺脫生存困境和生態危機的重大而不可或缺的作用?生態批評的交叉特性決定了它的寬泛性與開放性,那么它的批評方法與策略有沒有基本的限定?甚至人類中心主義、生態中心主義、生態人類中心論等仍然糾纏不清。

              重提生態批評的理論限度,并非要否定生態批評的努力,而是希望將批判意識介入到生態批評內部,在其不吝于反思社會文化現象的同時,不斷地反視自身。我們知道,生態批評重辟文學書寫人與自然新維度之時并未將其發散出更多的研究面向,甚至在某種意義上遮蔽了其他面向。具體而言,生態批評總是對作品蘊藏的生態意識、生態智慧與生態預警等方面內容關注頗多,因而在生態批評的實踐中,文本意義都可簡約為一個有關人與自然的故事或寓言。不可否認,生態批評的確敞開了一扇過去鮮有人問津的生態之門,開辟了新的文學批評園地,豐富了文學與體驗現實的方式,拉近了文學與自然的距離,但同時又何嘗不是對內涵豐富的文學文本進行的一種閹割或戕害呢?

              同時,生態批評面對生態文學文本審美性與文學性不足始終顯得力不從心。對文學批評而言,探究作者意圖與思想如何編織到文本之中且又以何種方式呈現出來,遠比揭示與闡釋文本潛藏著多少或怎樣的觀念與思想要重要。雖然生態批評歷經近半個世紀的發展,但當下生態批評的實踐更多仍停留在對文本生態意識與理念的挖掘層面,而對這種意識與理念產生的文化基因與現實價值及作者如何在力保審美性與藝術性的前提下有意識地編織與呈現出來,且這種編織與呈現又是如何對專業批評者與普通讀者產生作用與影響等相關藝術性與審美性始終沒有突破。

              可見,建構一種既不傷害文學本體又全面引入生態觀念的生態批評理論,或許是生態批評當前和今后需要深入探討的課題。因而,生態批評有自身的理論局限,任何逾越其理論背景、話語范域及忽略其理論限度的批評行為,都有滑入強制闡釋的泥淖之嫌。

               

              (本文系國家社科基金重大項目“中國當代文藝審美共同體研究”(18ZDA277)、國家社科基金項目“‘空間融合’進程中文藝學場域建構與知識途徑”(16XZW005)階段性成果)

              (作者單位:洛陽師范學院文學院)

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