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              在文化磨合中促進文藝發展

              2019-7-4 16:51| 作者: 孫旭 李繼凱|編輯: admin| 查看: 166| 評論: 0

              當今時代,全球化和媒介技術高速發展,文藝卻在某種程度上被認為處于深度“危機”之中。為了對此有更為充分和客觀的認識,我們可以嘗試從文化磨合的視角來研究并探析當下文藝的發展狀況。

              理性看待文藝“危機”

              本文所說的文藝“危機”主要體現在如下方面。從文藝創作角度而言,當下的文學與其他藝術形式均不同程度存在藝術水平衰退的問題;從文藝接受的角度來看,受眾對消費性大眾文化的追捧在很大程度上影響了其對文學與其他藝術經典的接受;從文藝批評的角度來看,批評家對理論本身的關注超越了對文藝本身的強調;從文藝內部來看,隨著媒介技術的發展,文學的存在空間遭到其他藝術形式的侵占,電影對文學的挑戰就是典型的例子。而具體到文學研究,人們又強調文化研究正逐步代替文學研究,強調文學的“邊緣化”處境,甚至指出文學瀕臨“死亡”。

              文藝面臨的這些“危機”激起了人們對當下文藝發展的焦慮,同時也催生了想要解決“危機”的決心。但是,如果這些所謂的“危機”本身就是建立在諸如傳統與現代、理論與文本、文化與文學、文學與其他藝術等二元對立的思維模式之上,那么“危機”的真正解決就有賴于對這種思維模式的突破和超越。筆者認為,應從文化磨合的視角來看待當下文學與藝術發展所面臨的“危機”,努力破解固化的二元對立思維模式造成的發展瓶頸,促進我國當下文學藝術的發展,并對其豐富的價值意義作出客觀評價。

              從文化磨合的視角認識當下文藝的“危機”,首先應以一種審慎清醒的態度來認識文學藝術發展中存在的問題。其次應該重視對文藝作品的分析,但又不能以尋找完美的藝術作品為目的。因為無論何種藝術形式,總是存在一定的問題與缺陷,事實上也并不存在絕對完美的藝術作品。由此,對文藝作品的評價也就不應是在傳統文藝與現代文藝、東方文藝與西方文藝、文學與其他藝術形式之間作出簡單機械的高低、優劣、好壞等“人為”評判。

              此外,堅持文化磨合的視角,就要求批評主體不能只對文藝作品進行批評而缺乏同情與共鳴。同時,文藝批評的原則不能只是給出一些聳人聽聞的概括,而應當深入文藝作品的肌理當中細心品鑒;也不能以尊重傳統與經典的名義給當下的文藝統統蓋上“衰退”與“危機”的標簽,應該有更新知識體系和解放自我觀念的自覺意識,在批評文藝作品的同時也使自己的評價標準得到及時調整。

              超越二元對立思維

              從文化磨合的視角評價當下文藝的發展狀況和藝術價值,需要用“否定之否定”代替“二元對立”的思維模式。以“否定之否定”的思維模式可以認識到不同傳統的“再生”和“發現”,認識到不同文化思潮、藝術形式以及批評話語的相互影響和動態磨合。因此,在文化磨合的視域中,將文學批評僅僅局限于“純文學”的范疇是不可能的,文學研究與文化研究是可以相互借鑒的。文學與其他藝術形式,諸如電影與音樂等,也應該相互借鑒共同發展。

              在科學技術快速發展的今天,新的媒介必然生成新的藝術表現方式。與其慨嘆當下文藝創作中藝術水平的衰退,不如嘗試更新我們對“經典”的認識。作為這個時代的一分子,我們必須在批評文藝作品的同時對批評主體進行反思。因此,以下這些問題便值得我們重視:我們對于文藝的闡釋不能僅限于我們已了解的批評標準和理論方法,應該從“只緣身在此山中”的狀況中脫出身來,更新我們對于新事物的認識。我們不能只囿于傳統的“經典”,以一種“崇古”情結或“好古”的立場,對新的藝術形式進行居高臨下的貶低,而要從古今平等的角度對其作出客觀評價。我們不能執著于舊的傳統,而要認識到新的傳統正在形成。只有對文藝評價標準和立場進行上述反思,我們才能對當下的文藝發展有更為清醒的認識。

              此外,文化磨合也不是簡單地、不加分辨地讓不同文化、藝術形式以及批評話語自行發展。它反對的是在文化和藝術的發展中“建圍墻”“樹籬笆”等二元對立思維,但并不意味著它置文化、藝術與理論批評話語的基本評價標準于不顧,并不是對“多樣性”不加分辨地收納,也不是簡單地與 “多元主義文化”同流。文化磨合是讓人們認識到,無論在哪一個時代、哪一種思潮、哪一種傳統以及哪一種藝術表現形式中,不同文化的共存與相互影響都大于彼此之間的斗爭。

              探索文藝發展路徑

              需要注意的是,雖然我們強調不同文化、藝術形式以及批評話語之間的共存與相互影響是文化磨合的理論前提,但是文化磨合的理論宗旨卻并不是單純強調“共存”這么簡單和機械。它更多的是強調文化的動態生成與傳統的再生。如艾瑞克·霍布斯鮑姆在《傳統的發明》中指出的,不同文化體系中每一代人都會繼承各自的傳統,但是又會根據當下社會的發展有所變更。

              好與壞、高雅與低俗這樣一錘定音而又涇渭分明的評判并不是文化磨合的理論追求。相反,文化磨合的理論旨歸在于幫助人們認識到,無論文學還是其他藝術,它們都有自己的特殊歷史,有對特定傳統的繼承與接受,同時又有對傳統的批判與發展。在對傳統不斷的批判與發展中,文藝才有了自己的生機與活力。因此,我們需要以更加包容的心態對當下的文學與其他藝術作出理性、客觀的評價。

              我們從文化磨合的視角觀照當今文藝發展,旨在促進不同文化、藝術形式與批評話語之間的共存與互動,并探索文學藝術未來發展的可能路徑。這是一個復雜的問題,很多重要細節需要進一步討論。但是,可以肯定的是,從文化磨合的視角出發,無疑可以對當下文藝的發展狀況形成更為客觀、更具整體性和前瞻性的認識。

              從文化磨合的視角出發,可以更為深入地認識“人類命運共同體”這一理念的內涵和價值,并有利于推動這一理念的傳播,也有助于認識這一理念與當下文藝發展的緊密關系。《禮記·中庸》中說,“萬物并育而不相害,道并行而不悖”,這一“古語”的現代化用,本身就體現了文化上的古今磨合以及中外磨合。因此,文化磨合與構建“人類命運共同體”緊密相關。只有從文化磨合的視角出發,才能協調好自我與他者的關系,既不被他者異化,也不被自我束縛,進而推動構建 “人類命運共同體”。只有真正認識“人類命運共同體”這一理念的人文內涵及其重要性,才能將其運用于對當下我國文藝發展現狀的分析,才能充分認識到多種文藝形式以及文藝創作與文藝批評之間“并育不相害”“并行而不悖”的生態關系——這才是當下文藝發展的正途。

              文學與藝術在發展過程中難免會遭遇各種“危機”,但總是又會涅槃重生。各種文學與藝術彼此相關,相互影響。通過積極主動而又自覺高效的文化磨合,可以有力推進我國文學藝術的全面發展。

              (作者單位:陜西師范大學文學院)

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