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              提升文藝批評的思想力量

              2017-6-20 17:10| 作者: 光明日報 楊光祖|編輯: admin| 查看: 21028| 評論: 0

              當今文藝批評多受詬病,公信力日益下滑。文藝批評出現亂象,不斷被污名化,質量一直不是很令人滿意,原因是多方面的。不過一個重要原因沒有引起大家足夠的重視,那就是文藝批評家哲學素養的嚴重匱乏。

              有個很經典的說法,那就是“文史哲不分家”。歷史上那些大批評家都具有深湛的哲學、思想素養,否則文章就沒有穿透力,尤其面對復雜的、杰出的文本,就只能隔靴搔癢,無法進入文本內部,說出真正的優秀之處,或者只能匍匐在文本之下,無法對它進行高屋建瓴、入木三分的批評。

              哲學和文學藝術的關系是非常密切和復雜的。縱觀文學藝術史,那些文學藝術大師基本都是思想家,都有自己獨特的思想。比如托爾斯泰、陀思妥耶夫斯基、卡夫卡、曹雪芹、魯迅。可以說,如果沒有獨特的思想,他們的文學成就可能就會大打折扣。后人之所以不斷地閱讀他們的著作,不僅是因為他們的作品具有強烈的文學性,他們擁有高超的文學技巧,更是因為他們文字的后面蘊藏著巨大的思想力量。這種思想與哲學家的表達方式不太一樣。(當然主要是與康德、黑格爾等人的表達方式不一樣。如果說與柏拉圖、尼采、莊子等人相比,差異性就比較小。)它更加感性,更加形象,更加生動,也更加容易進入人心。不要說這些現代作家,即便是古代經典作家,也與哲學密不可分。比如王維、李白、蘇軾等人,如果你對莊禪一無可知,那么你也永遠無法體味他們的妙處,所謂妙處難與君說。比如杜甫,如果對儒家沒有深切的人生體悟,恐怕也很難真正讀懂他。

              在藝術領域,比如影視、美術、書法,一個藝術家哲學修養的重要性也是不言而喻的。真正杰出的影視作品,都是富有思想的,閃著智慧的光芒,比如卓別林、斯皮爾伯格、伯格曼、大島渚等。沒有對日本、歐洲文化思想的深入了解,要理解他們的電影,是不可能的。中國那些大師級的書畫家,比如董其昌、倪瓚、黃賓虹,你如果對莊子、禪宗沒有初步的體悟,恐怕永遠看不到他們的妙處。一個熟練的畫匠,是永遠看不懂他們的。如今有些名頭很大的畫壇人士一說起董其昌、黃賓虹,就說他們這個不行那個不行,云云,都緣于沒有思想修養,沒有眼界。當年傅雷先生為什么獨具只眼,看到黃賓虹的偉大,而不是那些畫壇中人?因為傅雷有超人的藝術修養,有對中西文化的深湛造詣。如今閱讀他們二人的百多封通信,還不禁震撼于他們的素養之深。讀這樣的書信,真是一種絕大的享受呀。一個人從文學藝術大師那里獲得的閱讀美感,是從一個低俗的暢銷書作家、一個畫匠那里永遠得不到的。

              所以,作為一名文藝評論家,必須具備一定的哲學修養。否則,就無法對那些真正的文學藝術作品進行賞鑒、研究。當然,作為一名優秀的文藝評論家,首先需要的肯定是對文學藝術的那種審美直覺,那種對文學藝術史的諳熟,那種藝術判斷力。但僅有此還不行,還必須有一定的哲學修養。哲學會給批評家一雙慧眼,讓他穿透文本,看到文本后面的東西。魯迅作為偉大的文學家、思想家,他的創作超越時代,他的文學批評也是眼力非凡,他關于陀思妥耶夫斯基的兩篇短文,我非常喜歡,認為到目前都為人所難及。李長之《魯迅批判》及關于司馬遷、陶淵明、李白等論著,都能夠穿越歷史云煙,歷久彌新。除了他的不羈天才之外,他的思想之光,也是無法否認的。當年他在清華大學,先學生物學,后轉入哲學,尤其醉心于德國古典唯心論哲學和形式主義美學。

              在影視領域,美國學者羅伯特·阿普、詹姆斯·麥克雷的《李安哲學》是一部關于李安研究的厚重之作,作者集中論述了李安電影的思想,還從西方哲學,如愛、存在、身份、酷兒理論等角度作了深入分析,頗見功力。這樣的著作在國內是不多見的。因為當下一些從事影視研究的學者,大多缺乏哲學修養,他們更多的是將電影看作一項技術活,認識不到它們也有哲學,也需要哲學。因為缺乏思想之光,他們在研究電影時,只看見技術,或者搬用西方理論亂套一下,而無法真正進入杰出電影文本的里面。他們的著作,或者論文,沒有那種讓人心動的思想穿透力。葉朗先生在《美學原理》一書中談到理論思維能力時,認為它表現為一種“理論感”。這種“理論感”也就是愛因斯坦所說的“方向感”,即“向著某種具體的東西一往無前的感覺”。葉朗說:“當你自己在研究、寫作的時候,這種理論感會幫助你把握自己思想中出現的最有價值的東西(有的是朦朧的、轉瞬即逝的萌芽),它會指引你朝著某個方向深入,做出新的理論發現和理論概括。”

              李長之非常強調批評家的批評精神。他認為,偉大的批評精神是為理性爭自由的。批評家,必須具備一種真正的哲學家的頭腦的義務。他甚至說,批評家必須具備哲學知識,“哲學之分析性、體系性,對事物而探其根本的徹底性,是一個批評家應有的精神,以哲學為訓練看,批評家尤其要有這種知識”。文學藝術發展到20世紀,有了非常巨大的變化,文學藝術的哲學化,日益濃重,某種意義上,藝術需要闡釋了,需要思想之光的觀照了,它不僅是再現的,如卡夫卡的小說,杜尚的作品。如果文藝批評家沒有相當的哲學修養,沒有一定的思想能力,沒有對海德格爾、本雅明、拉康、福柯、羅蘭·巴特、麥克盧漢、波德里亞、詹姆遜等等思想家的深切了解,面對現代主義文本,或者后現代主義文本,不管是文學,還是藝術,可以說基本都是失語的。而一位中國的文藝批評家,除此之外,如果對中國傳統思想不了解,對中國傳統文藝理論的現代化轉型沒有思考,那么,從事當下的文學藝術批評,就非常艱難,可以說,只能隔靴搔癢,無法入木三分、切中肯綮。

              我一直認為文史哲的教育斷裂,是當代很難出文科大師的關鍵。馮友蘭等那一批哲學家都有著良好的文學修養。而那個時代的文學家大都有高深的哲學修養,魯迅就不用說了,周作人、廢名等人,都是如此。

              那么,是不是哲學家從事文學批評就一定很成功呢?也不見得。他們還需要具備優秀的文學感悟力。巴赫金也曾經說自己不是一個文學批評家,而是一個哲學家。可見他已經有了這方面的自我意識。

              文藝評論的力量來自于對文本的分析。這種分析既有文學性、藝術性的分析,也有對文本思想性的分析。所以,一個文藝評論家的哲學素養,應該不是那種教條式的、概念化的東西。用那種抽象的哲學術語從事文學批評,也是得不償失。真正的文藝批評家應該是將哲學內化于自己的血液之中,化為自己的審美直覺,用俗話說,養就一雙慧眼;用王國維的話說,就是“試上高峰窺皓月,偶開天眼覷紅塵”。

              當代文藝批評家,急需加強自身的哲學素養,鍛就自己的思想力量。如此,不僅文藝評論自身會贏得讀者的認可,更重要的是對當下文學藝術創作才會有真正的指導意義。恩格斯說,鍛煉自己的理論思維能力,至今只有一個辦法,那就是學習過去的哲學。

              (作者:楊光祖,系西北師范大學傳媒學院教授)

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