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              牛學智談唐榮堯:對寫作同質化的克服與擯棄

              2017-6-22 16:30| 編輯: admin| 查看: 20136| 評論: 0

              唐榮堯的寫作包括寫青海的《青海之書》,寫青海湖的《一滴圣藍青海湖》,寫黃河的《大河遠上》,寫賀蘭山的《賀蘭山——一部立著的史詩》,都視野宏大、結構講究、語言靈動,預定的目標明確。

              認真的讀者對現階段的人文閱讀,恐怕都有雷同的感覺。這種大面積同質化選題、同質化價值訴求,已經威脅到人文的傳布和接受。人們因而覺得大同小異、不過如此,而對人文價值本身厭倦,甚至排斥。而唐榮堯的寫作,不但反復求助于田野調查,而且還自覺地給自己壓擔子。有了豐富的田野調查經驗,他自己的局限也就自然得到了更新和補充;有了自覺的責任意識,被打開的個人眼界,必然有了更加豐富的社會內容和明確的文化價值取向。在這個前提下,面對一個自然景點或歷史遺跡,便不再是游客一驚一乍的感喟和嘻嘻哈哈“到此一游”的感官滿足,而是煥發了景點和歷史遺跡應有的厚重感,建立了一種積極的文化秩序。所以,雖然他的書大體屬于歷史范疇,但因為人文訴求有別,歷史論述或寫作也就面目不同。不但與自己的前一部不同,也與別人的相關著述不同,很好地克服了寫作的同質化問題。

              面對普遍的“室內游戲”式想象和寫作風氣,唐榮堯信奉腳板的實證主義作風與不斷把對象陌生化的實踐,擴展了主體性經驗。他寫作的啟示也在完善主體性世界上。他寫《西夏王朝》時,面對的是西夏近200年歷史、經濟、文化、政治、教育和藝術興衰的軌跡,他的主體性也就成了西夏這個主體的體驗者、承受者和銘記者。他寫《賀蘭山》時,賀蘭山的歷史、地理、人文,便成了他既有主體性經驗和知識的鏡子。只有打破自我認知局限,才能理想地進入到賀蘭山的文化實質層面。這時,他的主體性完成得怎樣的問題,便取決于賀蘭山這座山的主體性。同樣,他寫《大河遠上》時,讀者閱讀的不再是唐榮堯的自我世界,而是黃河子語——海、湖、渠、淖、泊、灣及其話語方式和人文習慣,也才會聯想到為什么只有花兒、秦腔、信天游、黃河號子、嗩吶、大秧歌等,才是黃河的聲音。

              相比之下,不同題材一個嘴臉,不同歷史淵源一個價值趣味的論述或寫作,之所以看得多了必然會產生味同嚼蠟的感覺,是因為寫作者是以同一個主體性尺度來丈量的。在那個世界里,主體性非但沒有保持足夠的沉默,反而一定程度上還變成了某種代言者,嚴重壓抑了對象世界的多聲部。這不是對傳統精華的發掘,而是對傳統精華的刪減,張揚了局限的個體趣味。

              唐榮堯的寫作在話語方式上積極變革,進一步增加了此類很容易自我重復寫作的新穎性,也具有啟示意義。當然,以散文化語言、創作心態進行的研究或寫作實踐,唐榮堯不是第一人。黃仁宇的《萬歷十五年》《中國大歷史》就不說了,當前的例子很多。比如葛兆光的《中國思想史》,就是散文隨筆化語言寫成的;李敬澤兼有小說家細節、散文家跳躍和批評家嚴謹的《小春秋》《青鳥故事集》;彭程讀書紀言、評論與經典筆記等文體整飭融合的著作《紙頁上的足印》等都是。當然,這種話語方式不都好用,甚至用得不好,反遭人唾棄。比如,某些寫作因為無視基本歷史和文化常識,肆意放大自我感知,產生了不好的影響,有時也到了誤導讀者的地步。但唐榮堯想象也罷,用史料知識也罷,抑或借重前人研究成果也罷,都很慎重,基本上是有一分證據說一分話。他散文化語言的運用,只是相對于學院派的四堵高墻和教案式的死知識梳理來說的。從這個層面來讀他的著作,覺得他其實更了解這個時代人們呼喚務實、真實、實在的接受心理。

              說了這么多贊美的話,下面談點我的保留意見。整體來看,唐榮堯的寫作有明顯的文化傳統主義傾向。這集中體現在他幾乎每部書的框架結構上。他喜歡用某某年的某一天,當誰誰誰跟往常一樣干什么的時候,或我想著如下一幅場景之時,然后帶進要敘述的對象。結尾時,總喜歡以“挽歌”“感嘆”式話語方式結束。對于他寫作或研究的特殊對象,現實可能就是這樣,是一個終結了的王朝或事物。但作為一個人文研究者或寫作者,沒必要把自己的想象和智慧按部就班封鎖在現實形式上或服膺于《百年孤獨》一類小說敘事的框架。有時候最珍貴的追問,或許恰恰應該在對象世界結束或事物終結的地方開始。如果以文化現代性思想衡量,結束的地方、終結的事物,是不是已通過其他方式轉化成別的形式了?而這個其他新生的方式,雖然有時并不顯性存在,但其中是不是孕育著人們新的訴求和價值期許?無論確有,或確無,作為理性思考的作者,都不宜用道德感傷的方式來看待對象世界,如果這樣看待了,那反而是思想的貧乏。

              總之,唐榮堯寫作的啟示意義值得進一步闡發。因為他不是一個人的寫作或研究風格問題,而是關系到今天時代怎樣研究或寫作的問題。

              (作者:牛學智,單位:寧夏社科院文化研究所)

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