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              杜甫詩歌好在接地氣

              2017-10-13 17:30| 編輯: admin| 查看: 21761| 評論: 0

              杜甫《江村》詩意圖。“清江一曲抱村流,長夏江村事事幽。自去自來梁上燕,相親相近水中鷗。老妻畫紙為棋局,稚子敲針作釣鉤。但有故人供祿米,微軀此外更何求?” 清代錢慧安繪 視覺中國/光明圖片

              李白與杜甫是唐詩史上并峙的兩座高峰,難分高下。新中國成立以來很長的一段時間里,李白其人其詩相對而言更符合當代詩壇的想象和審美規范,一路看漲的行情一直綿延至朦朧詩的黃金時期。20世紀90年代以來,情況卻悄然發生了變化——詩人們在向西方詩歌大師們學習的同時,開始推崇古典詩人杜甫,他被熱愛的程度甚至遠超李白。詩人們紛紛將其作為書寫資源,蕭開愚、周瑟瑟分別創作了長詩或組詩《向杜甫致敬》,黃燦然、梁曉明、廖偉裳、西川等不約而同地以《杜甫》為題,與之展開跨時空的精神對話,至于通過文本鑲嵌或題材選擇的方式書寫杜甫的作者、作品更難以數計。

              “杜甫熱”緣何突起?它既是對20世紀80年代寫作弊端的定向反撥,又是對20世紀90年代以來新的現實狀況的積極應和。一方面,80年代的詩歌在哲思、想象區域肆意高蹈,陷入民族、歷史與文化的“大詞”中無法自拔,從本質上懸置了日常存在和本真現實,教訓深刻。另一方面,90年代從普通事物中挖掘詩意已成大勢所趨,尤其是新世紀發生的非典、雪災、海嘯、地震等一系列事件,更從靈魂層面觸動了詩人蟄伏在心底的悲憫意識和擔當情懷,促使他們在創作中思考詩歌如何“及物”,重建詩與現實的關聯。這種文化語境和杜甫那些切入時代良知、“此在”感強烈的詩歌遇合,自然會令許多詩人共鳴,競相參照與仿效。

              那么,杜甫詩歌究竟在哪些層面對當下詩歌有所“喚醒”呢?

              迥異于李白“云端感”強烈的詩,杜甫置身地面,在人群之中用生命歌唱。他詩中那種關注現時現事的“深刻的當代性”品格,對當下詩壇的深度喚醒最為顯豁。杜甫詩歌對普通人命運的凝眸與撫摸,堪稱質感鮮活的“及物”寫作,如“三吏”“三別”直面戰爭引發的生離死別、民間疾苦,《聞官軍收河南河北》寫了初聞安史之亂終于被平定時和妻子欣喜若狂的情景,詩從家務事起筆,卻指向江山社稷,飽含一腔憂國憂民之情。他“以時事入詩”的特質和敢于擔當的人格,啟示著當代詩人從身邊的人物和事件等平凡的對象世界發現詩意,貼近、切入現實和人生的中心。像胡弦的《鐘樓》,“表面尚完好,內部已損毀,/指針永遠停在下午兩點二十八分”,避開地震詩歌“井噴狀態”的冷靜思索,使起筆于鐘樓和時針的觀察,彰顯著人類的大愛,是人性的深入承載,更觸及了一個民族的疼痛神經和記憶。有些直接從日常生活中長出的詩,更接地氣,更具當代感。當下詩人應和杜甫詩歌精神,攫取日常生活的詩意,恢復了語詞和事物、生活之間的親和力,這恐怕也是近些年詩歌重新回溫的一個重要邏輯支點。

              杜甫當年融敘事于抒情的藝術嘗試,成為20世紀90年代以來新詩創作和批評界關注的一個重點。必須承認,詩對“此在”經驗的占有、對復雜問題的處理,遠不如其他敘事文類寬裕從容。對此,早在唐代的杜甫就有所覺察,并嘗試合理吸收敘事文類的技巧,以事態抒情規避詩歌文體的先天不足。他的《佳人》寫一段亂世佳人的心路歷程,其間有被丈夫遺棄后幽居空谷的苦難遭遇,有自身守護貞潔的內心世界披露,有出身良家卻流落山野、丈夫輕薄迎娶年輕女人的敘述,還有“我”用藤蘿修補茅屋漏洞等細節,信手摘花卻無心插戴鬢間望著柏葉沉思的動作,這些既有抒情寫意,更有敘事寫人。在抒情中敘事的方式自然加大了文本的容量,推出了相對完整的“故事”空間。20世紀90年代以來,隨著詩歌向日常生活俯就,詩人愈發意識到生活原本是敘述式的,對它最老實的處理方式不是虛擬闡釋,而是敘述與描述。于是向杜甫的敘事做法學習成為很多人的共識。王家新要在詩歌中“講出一個故事來”,張曙光差不多用陳述句式寫詩,臧棣以《燕園紀事》作為詩集的名字,孫文波的《在西安的士兵生涯》、蕭開愚的《北站》、劉春的《一個名叫劉浪的女孩》等以敘述支撐文本的作品接連涌現,“敘述”意識自覺內化為許多詩歌的藝術血肉。詩人們的“敘事”使向來主情的詩歌獲得了一定的情境化、事件化品質,拓寬了詩歌的情緒容量,好在詩人的情緒滲透和生活認知壓著陣腳,使詩是敘事的,但更是詩性的。

              杜甫的寫作態度對當下詩人也有著隱性卻深刻的內在啟悟。杜甫一生與詩不離左右,將詩歌作為自己靈魂與情感的寄托。他以對詩歌的虔敬之心,打通了個人和社會、歷史之間的通道。他對語言的錘煉,更堪稱千古佳話。且看《旅夜書懷》一詩,“細草微風岸,危檣獨夜舟。星垂平野闊,月涌大江流。名豈文章著,官應老病休。飄飄何所似,天地一沙鷗”。這首詩對動詞、數量詞的運用就令人擊節,煉字煉意的功夫可見一斑。一個“垂”字、一個“涌”字的點醒刺激,使三四句詩意頓活,奇絕貼切得無法更易。而結句的數量詞“一”字一出,就將詩人置身于天地間孤寂飄零的形象和情懷,傳達得特殊又到位。20世紀90年代后“杜甫熱”中的苦吟精神和方法,對詩壇有某種程度的影響和覆蓋。像鄭敏、西川、王小妮、朵漁等詩人能淡然于經濟大潮和紅塵翻卷之外,平靜地專注于詩歌藝術的探究,自成一脈風景,像李琦總是先洗凈雙手,然后端坐桌前,享受寫詩的安詳和圣潔。為什么?說穿了是他們把詩歌視為生命的棲居方式,所以才能斂心靜氣,一絲不茍,生怕自己的一絲草率而玷污了詩神。杜甫的苦吟精神則有更大面積的回響。詩人們在承繼杜甫苦吟藝術態度和精神方面的努力,自然敦促詩歌愈加精致凝練、詩味濃郁,也提高了文本的耐咀嚼力。

              “杜甫熱”對當下詩歌的啟悟是一種綜合性輻射,像杜甫詩歌“沉郁頓挫”整體風格統攝下的多元化,像杜甫詩歌抒情主體人格的建構等,對當下詩歌都有著正面的影響和引發。可惜,客觀地看,“杜甫熱”對當下詩歌的覆蓋面和覆蓋程度還是有限的,并且在接受杜甫的過程中,很多詩人也并未完全領受到杜甫詩歌的精髓,所以在承繼上有所偏離——或及物了,卻缺少杜甫自覺溝通個體和群體、家與國、自我與時代的能力,沒有必要的精神和意義提升,被瑣屑淹沒了;或只在意敘事的便捷和涵容力,而不去做使敘事詩性化的努力,造成不少詩歌成為散漫啰唆的代名詞,事態有了,詩性卻沒了;或把詩壇演繹成了實驗的場所,在一些人“苦吟”的同時,另一些人卻在游戲、發泄、玩兒詩歌。正如很多人以為新詩和西方詩歌關系密切而和傳統詩歌相去甚遠的誤區需要消除一樣,這些寫作者有悖于“杜甫熱”精神實質、阻礙新詩繁榮的創作現象,更值得詩歌界深入反思和有效遏制。

              (作者:羅振亞,系南開大學文學院教授)

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